What is Macular Degeneration and Are You at Risk?

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss, affecting more than 2 million Americans age 50 and older. Due to the aging of the U.S. population, the number of people affected by AMD is expected to increase significantly in the years ahead.

AMD usually produces a slow, painless loss of vision. In rare cases, however, vision loss can be sudden. Early signs of vision loss from AMD include shadowy areas in your central vision or unusually fuzzy or distorted vision.

Though macular degeneration is associated with aging, research suggests there also is a genetic component to the disease.

Besides affecting older populations, AMD occurs in whites and females in particular. The disease also can result as a side effect of some drugs, and it seems to run in families.

New evidence strongly suggests smoking is high on the list of risk factors for macular degeneration. Other risk factors for macular degeneration include having a family member with AMD, high blood pressure, lighter eye color, and obesity.

Some researchers believe that over-exposure to sunlight also may be a contributing factor in the development of AMD. High levels of dietary fat also may be a risk factor for developing AMD.

Risk Factors for Macular Degeneration

  • Aging. The prevalence of AMD increases with age. In the United States, approximately one in 14 people over the age of 40 have some degree of macular degeneration. For those over 60, the rate is one in eight (12.5 percent); and for seniors over age 80, one in three (33 percent) has AMD.
  • Obesity and inactivity. Overweight patients with macular degeneration had more than double the risk of developing advanced forms of AMD compared with people of normal body weight, according to one study reported in Archives of Ophthalmology (June 2003).
  • Heredity. Recent studies have found that specific variants of different genes are present in most people who have macular degeneration.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension). Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science reported the results of a European study demonstrating that high blood pressure may be associated with the development of macular degeneration (September 2003).
  • Smoking. Smoking is a major AMD risk factor and was found in one British study to be directly associated with about 25 percent of AMD cases causing severe vision loss.
  • Lighter eye color. Some researchers theorized that the extra pigment found in darker eyes was a protective factor against the development of eye disease during sun exposure.
  • Drug side effects. Some cases of macular degeneration can be induced from side effects of toxic drugs such as Aralen (chloroquine, an anti-malarial drug) or phenothiazine.

Think you are at risk? Schedule an appointment with one of our doctors to catch it early!